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Software Concepts

Software represents the sets of programs that governs the operation of a computer system and makes the hardware run.It can be classified broadly into two categories:-

  • System Software
  • Application Software
  • Utilities

System Software: The software that controls the internal computer operation is called System Software.

The system software can be further classified into two categories:

  • Operating system
  • Language processor

Operating System: An Operating system is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware (i.e., all computer resources).

An operating system is an important component of a computer system which controls all other components of the computer system.

  • The Hardware
  • The Operating system
  • The Application program routines (compiler, linkers, database management system, utility programs)

Where hardware provides the basic computing resources, the application program routines defines the ways in which these resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users and the operating system controls the coordinates the use of the hardware among various application programs for the various users.

Language Processor: As programmers prefer to write their programs is one of the High Level Languages (HLLs) because it is much easier to code in such languages. Computer does not understand any other language other than its own machine language (binary language) therefore,it becomes necessary to process a HLL Program so as to make it understandable to computer. The system programs which perform this variety of jobs are Language Processors.

Language Processors Types:

  • Assembler: This language processor converts the program written in assembly language into machine language.
  • Interpreter: This language processor converts a HLL program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line.
  • Compiler: This language processor converts a HLL program into machine language in one go and reports all the errors of the program along with line numbers.

 

Application Software: An application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application.These are the programs written by programmers to enable computer to perform a specific tasks such as processing word, inventory controls, handling calculations and figures, medical accounting, financial accounting, result preparation, railway reservation, billing etc.

Application Software Types:

  • Packages: General application softwares are known as Packages.
  • Utilities: They are those application programs that assist the computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning / cleaning viruses or arranging information etc.
  • Customised Software: This type of software is tailor-made software to a user's requirements. The type of software is developed to meet all the requirements specified by the user.

 

Utility Software :

Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer.Utility software usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure (including the computer hardware, operating system, software and data storage) operates.

Different types of Utility Software :

Antivirus:Antivirus software is computer software used to prevent, detect and remove malicious computer viruses. Most software described as antivirus also works against other types of malware, such as trojan horses, worms,adware and spyware.

Data Compression: In computer science and information theory, data compression involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.Compression can be either lossy or lossless. Lossless compression reduces bits by identifying and eliminating statistical redundancy. No information is lost in lossless compression. Lossy compression reduces bits by identifying unnecessary information and removing it.The process of reducing the size of a data file is popularly referred to as data compression.

Disk Backup :Backup software are computer programs used to perform backup; they create supplementary exact copies of files, databases or entire computer. These programs may later use the supplementary copies to restore the original contents in the event of data loss.

Disk Cleaner :Disk cleaners are computer programs that find and delete potentially unnecessary or potentially unwanted files from a computer. The purpose of such deletion may be to free up disk space, to eliminate clutter or to protect privacy.Disk space consuming unnecessary files include temporary files, trash, old backups and web caches made by web browsers. Privacy risks include HTTP cookies, local shared objects, log files or any other trace that may tell which computer program opened which files.

Defragmentation: In the maintenance of file systems, defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence.

Defragmentation Process:

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