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Network Protocol PDF Print E-mail

Network Protocol - Source (en.wikipedia.org)

A computer communication protocol is a description of the rules computers must follow to communicate with each other.

TCP/IP

TCP/IP is the communication protocol for communication between computers on the Internet.TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.TCP/IP defines how electronic devices (like computers) should be connected to the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them.

Inside the TCP/IP standard there are several protocols for handling data communication:

  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) communication between applications
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) simple communication between applications
  • IP (Internet Protocol) communication between computers
  • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) for errors and statistics
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) for dynamic addressing

TCP

If one application wants to communicate with another via TCP, it sends a communication request. This request must be sent to an exact address. After a "handshake" between the two applications, TCP will set up a "full-duplex" communication between the two applications.The "full-duplex" communication will occupy the communication line between the two computers until it is closed by one of the two applications.

IP

IP is for communication between computers.IP is a "connection-less" communication protocol.IP does not occupy the communication line between two computers. IP reduces the need for network lines. Each line can be used for communication between many different computers at the same time.With IP, messages (or other data) are broken up into small independent "packets" and sent between computers via the Internet.IP is responsible for "routing" each packet to the correct destination.

FTP

Short for File Transfer Protocol, the protocol for exchanging files over the Internet. FTP works in the same way as HTTP for transferring Web pages from a server to a user's browser and SMTP for transferring electronic mail across the Internet in that, like these technologies, FTP uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer.FTP is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server (e.g., uploading a Web page file to a server).

Telnet

A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. To start a Telnet session, you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers.

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol, a method of connecting a computer to the Internet. PPP is more stable than the older SLIP protocol and provides error checking features. Working in the data link layer of the OSI model, PPP sends the computer's TCP/IP packets to a server that puts them onto the Internet.

GSM

Short for Global System for Mobile Communications, one of the leading digital cellular systems. GSM uses narrowband TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency.GSM was first introduced in 1991. As in the end of 1997, GSM service was available in more than 100 countries and has become the de facto standard in Europe and Asia.

CDMA

Short for Code-Division Multiple Access, a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies, allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time, and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built.

GPRS

Short for General Packet Radio Service, a standard for wireless communications which runs at speeds up to 115 kilobits per second, compared with current GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) systems' 9.6 kilobits.GPRS, which supports a wide range of bandwidths, is an efficient use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data.

WLL

Wireless local loop (WLL), is a term for the use of a wireless communications link as the "last mile / first mile" connection for delivering plain old telephone service (POTS) and/or broadband Internet to telecommunications customers. Various types of WLL systems and technologies exist.

3G

3G is an ITU specification for the third generation (analog cellular was the first generation, digital PCS the second) of mobile communications technology. 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 Kbps when a device is stationary or moving at pedestrian speed, 128 Kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM, TDMA, and CDMA. The new EDGE air interface has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G.

SMTP

Short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. In addition, SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail application.

POP

In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval.Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both. The POP protocol has been developed through several versions, with version 3 (POP3) being the current standard. Most webmail service providers such as Hotmail, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail also provide IMAP and POP3 service.

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is short for "wireless fidelity," however this is not the case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked term meaning IEEE 802.11x.

WiMax

WiMAX is an IP based, wireless broadband access technology that provides performance similar to 802.11/Wi-Fi networks with the coverage and QOS (quality of service) of cellular networks. WiMAX is also an acronym meaning "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks".

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